Friday, June 5, 2020

Respiratory risk in infants - 275 Words

Respiratory risk in infants (Essay Sample) Content: Respiratory Risk in InfantsStudentà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬s NameUniversity AffiliationRespiratory Risk in InfantsQuestionIn healthy women with a low-risk pregnancy, is the risk of newborn respiratory disease higher when the infant is delivered by elective cesarean section than by vaginal delivery?Study PopulationHansen et al (2008) carried out a research on the occurrence of respiratory morbidity among newborn babies. The study was carried within a period of 8 years from 1998 to 2006. During this period, the researcher obtained information for 34,458 pregnancies and deliveries for 37 to 41 weeks of gestation period. The number of elective cesarean deliveries studied was 2687. The study was carried out at Aarhus University Hospital in Netherlands. Pregnant women were selected to answer the questionnaires before and after birth, the midwife assisted in answering the questionnaire for each of the selected women.InterventionThere has been little intervention by medical practitioners r egarding the occurrence of respiratory morbidity in infants delivered through elective cesarean. This minimal intervention is because of lack of clear information to the clinicians about the causes of respiratory morbidity and other respiratory distresses found in infants delivered through elective cesarean. According to Hansen et al (2008), there is also limited information on whether the infants experiencing respiratory distresses suffer from serious illnesses later in life. However, there have been occurrences of severe respiratory morbidity, and in certain cases causing mortality among infants suffering from respiratory distresses. Hansen et al (2008), states that the mortality rate is common among children that experience respiratory morbidity and later suffer from pulmonary hypertension. There has been trials by clinicians to assist infants whose respiratory distress advance to pulmonary hypertension through Extra Corporeal Membrane Oxygenation (ECMO). On the other hand, the e tiology of the persistent pulmonary hypertension among the infants delivered through elective cesarean is not available. According to Hansen et al (2008), though most infants appear normal, some infants show signs of mild respiratory morbidity that is accompanied with minimal oxygen required. An examination by clinical officers indicates presence of retained lung fluid among the infants. In order to correct the problem, doctors administer surfactant. However, some infants show minimal response to surfactant administration.Moreover, in the treatment of the respiratory morbidity, clinical officers also face challenges due to the prevailing research information. Previous researches indicate that breathing 100% oxygen in human beings increases susceptibility to atelectasis (Hansen et al, 2008). In adults, atelectasis occurs within five minutes of breathing 100% oxygen. Therefore, treating infants with respiratory morbidity with pure oxygen may result in the development of progressive ab sorption atelectasis. This limits the use of ECMO in treating respiratory morbidity among infants delivered through elective cesarean. However, oxygen inhalation appears to be the best method of reducing respiratory morbidity. This intervention places clinical officers in a fix regarding the best method to treat respiratory distresses among infants delivered through elective cesarean. The researchers need to carry out an in-depth analysis of the appropriate method to treat of the respiratory disorder. The researchers also need to evaluate whether there are future abnormalities resulting from the occurrence of respiratory distress.ComparisonIn comparing the occurrence of respiratory morbidity among infants delivered through vaginal delivery and elective cesarean, Hansen et al (2008) found big variations. In the analysis, the occurrence of respiratory morbidity was estimated at 16 per 1000 births of elective cesarean. The occurrence of respiratory morbidity varies from 6-16 in previou s researches (Hansen et al, 2008). The high levels of respiratory morbidity among elective cesarean is because elective cesarean is done before the occurrence of labor pains. This is at betw...

Sunday, May 17, 2020

Persuasive Essay About Same Sex Parenting - 1273 Words

People who believe that gay couples should not be parents because it would negatively impact the children, but do not bother helping the 450,000 foster children in need of a loving family do not really care about the children. Gay couples can help lower this number of lonely foster kids since they are not able to have children of their own. Same-sex parenting should be commonly accepted because same-sex couples form relationships that are more stable than most heterosexual marriages, they are more motivated and committed to their child s life, and there has been a shortage of adoptive families in the past years. To have a better understanding on why same sex parenting should be commonly accepted, one must acknowledge the opposing†¦show more content†¦Even though they are small percentages, there is obviously a big difference in the divorce rate of heterosexual couples to homosexual couples. Additionally, a study from the National Campaign to Prevent Teen and Unplanned Pregnancy states that, [...] [88%] of teen mothers were unmarried when their child was born. and [...] those teen mothers who were [...][un]married when their child was born, only about [...][34%] went on to marry by the time their child reached [5]. (Stewart, Kaye) When teenagers become parents, they don t fully understand the responsibilities it takes to care for a child. This eventually leads to the split of the parents leaving the child only a single parent. Same-Sex couples aren t able to have children the same way heterosexual couples do, they usually adopt children that do not have their own families. Because th e legal age for most states to adopt is around age 25 it allows the couple to become more wiser and mature in how they act which leads to a better understanding on how to care for a child. Because divorce or parents splitting up affects children emotionally and mentally and homosexual couples are less likely to end their relationship than heterosexual couples, same-sex parenting should be commonly accepted so the child has less of a chance to experience that sadness of their parents ending their relationship. Another argument that same-sex parents should be accepted is that gay parents are more motivatedShow MoreRelatedThe Same Sex Marriage Should Be Equal Rights1393 Words   |  6 PagesAnother persuasive data is the constitutions which is based on the civil rights protection and ensure that each citizens has the right to participate in public social life. According to records, there are plenty of international civil rights declaration documents consider marriage and family as individuals or groups who are entitled to the protection of the government as human beings.† The US Supreme Court ruled by a 5-to-4 vote on Friday that constitution guarantees a right to homosexual marriageRead MoreGender Identity As An Axis Of Social Order1611 Words   |  7 Pagesfemininity is social constructed and maintained in everyday life (Clark and Page, 2005; Mackie, 1994). Gender identity is our innermost understanding of our self as ‘male’ or ‘female’. Most people develop a gender identity that matched their biological sex (their body). Gender identity can be affected by, and is different from one society to another, depending on the way the members of society evaluate the role of females and males. Our gender identity can be influenced from the ethnicity of the groupRead MoreCause-and-Effect Relationship between TV Violence and Actual Crimes1755 Words   |  7 Pages What evidence do you find in these essays that establishes a cause- and effect relationship between TV violence and actual crimes? The subject of violence and sexuality on television has remained of great concern for both liberals and conservatives, and there are advocates on both sides of the issue in each ideological camp. While some liberals bridle at any attempts to curtail speech, others are concerned about the impact that violent television viewing has upon impressionable viewers likeRead More The Negative Effects of Advertisements on Men and Women Essay2675 Words   |  11 Pagesads using sexual images and family-oriented images, and the use of the opposite or same sex to sell a product. The questions that were asked are presented below, in order: 1. Rate the level at which you see an advertisement that makes you wish to change something about your spouse/significant other. 2. Rate the level at which you see an advertisement that makes you feel like you need to change something about yourself (clothing, hair, etc.). 3. Rate the level at which you see an advertisementRead MorePhi 210 Week 2 Phi210 Week 23502 Words   |  15 Pagesreaction to your experience of these biases. PHI 210 Week 2 Assignment 1.1 Conflicting Viewpoints Essay - Part I Prewriting Due Week 2 and worth 30 points When looking for information about a particular issue, how often do you try to resist biases toward your own point of view? This assignment asks you to engage in this aspect of critical thinking by playing the Believing Game. The Believing Game is about making the effort to believe - or at least consider - the reasons for an opposing view on anRead MoreEssay The Future of Marriage in America9335 Words   |  38 Pageshttp://marriage.rutgers.edu/Publications/SOOU/TEXTSOOU2007.htm The State of Our Unions The Social Health of Marriage in America 2007 Essay: The Future of Marriage in America David Popenoe  © Copyright 2007 Introduction In this year’s essay, David Popenoe argues that long-term trends point to the gradual weakening of marriage as the primary social institution of family life. More Americans today are living together, marrying at older ages or not at all, and rearing children in cohabitingRead MoreMarketing Plan for Entrepreneur10970 Words   |  44 Pagesdevelop your marketing strategy around them, for without an adequate market plan, any business will not be profitable. 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That information includes their problem or concern, their feelings about the problem, and: (www) (18) a. their expectations of themselves b. their expectations of the counselorRead MoreOne Significant Change That Has Occurred in the World Between 1900 and 2005. Explain the Impact This Change Has Made on Our Lives and Why It Is an Important Change.163893 Words   |  656 PagesPHILADELPHIA Temple University Press 1601 North Broad Street Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19122 www.temple.edu/tempress Copyright  © 2010 by Temple University All rights reserved Published 2010 Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Essays on twentieth century history / edited by Michael Peter Adas for the American Historical Association. p. cm.—(Critical perspectives on the past) Includes bibliographical references. ISBN 978-1-4399-0269-1 (cloth : alk. paper)—ISBN 978-1-4399-0270-7Read MoreStephen P. Robbins Timothy A. Judge (2011) Organizational Behaviour 15th Edition New Jersey: Prentice Hall393164 Words   |  1573 PagesEnvironment 22 †¢ Improving Ethical Behavior 22 Coming Attractions: Developing an OB Model 23 An Overview 23 †¢ Inputs 24 †¢ Processes 25 †¢ Outcomes 25 Summary and Implications for Managers 30 S A L Self-Assessment Library How Much Do I Know About Organizational Behavior? 4 Myth or Science? â€Å"Most Acts of Workplace Bullying Are Men Attacking Women† 12 An Ethical Choice Can You Learn from Failure? 24 glOBalization! Does National Culture Affect Organizational Practices? 30 Point/Counterpoint Lost

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Cyber Threat Intelligence Based On Cyber Threats - 1612 Words

Introduction Security Officers must obtain a consensus for which mitigating controls are key, which can be a trying negotiation between the CISO, Chief Technology Officer, Cyber Threat Intelligence (CTI), Infrastructure Engineering, Audit and Assurance teams, and the Investment and Audit committees. How do you harness your entire organization to focus on a common agreed-upon list of key security controls? By defining key controls based on cyber threats (translated into business risks), an organization can more easily right-size the its control set and adapt it to their needs. Risk assessment processes that are near real-time, gated by the change control process, provide continuous feedback on the sufficiency of controls within an†¦show more content†¦Think of your organizational assets from the eyes of an attacker motivated by crime, espionage, hacktivism and even warfare. In other words, what are our Top Threats and how do we know? Interview the Chief Risk Officer and Business Unit leadership and ask them â€Å"what keeps you up at night?†. Then tie these answers to Corporate objectives and strategies in a Risk Register. Get agreement on key controls and downstream decision impacts. A systematic risk-based approach to information security, as ISO31000 describes, driven by periodic threat-based risk assessments, ensures that security efforts address risks in an effective and timely manner where and when needed. Risk Management processes, measures and taxonomy: ISO 31000 Risk Management Standard SO 31000 describes a framework for implementing risk management. As ISO 31000 depicts, it’s essential to manage your cybersecurity program within a continually improving management oversight wrapper. Make risk management an integral part of your organization’s management approach. 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Cyber analytics is used to support computer security, computer or network administration, auditing, and several other application areas.† Implementation Cyber Security Monitoring To perform adaptive cyber-security analytics using a computer implemented method that includes receiving a report on a networkRead MorePolicing Cybercrime : Police And Armed Forces1174 Words   |  5 PagesPolicing Cybercrime Strategy 3.1 Police and Armed Forces. In this chapter, the policing cyber strategy is discussed and will show that the unique organisational structure of the UK police force means that policing cyber strategy varies from county to county in the UK; although each regional force operated with the same objective. Within the UK strategy is the criminalisation of certain cyber activity . with Cyber Security Strategies containing elements of cybercrime control, therefore a Criminal JusticeRead MoreThe Fbi Agents And The Criminal Law Of The United States1615 Words   |  7 Pagesdangers that we cannot deal with. The FBI agents have an impact on our nation because they defend us against counterfeiting, terrorist attacks and cyber-based attacks. The FBI is a treat-based and intelligence driven national security organization. There mission is to protect and defend the United States against terrorists and foreign intelligence threats, to help enforce the criminal law of the United States. FBI Agents also have the opportunity to investigate specific crimes assigned to them andRead MoreU.s. 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Small Business in Government Contracting Essay Sample free essay sample

Government catching can be a really moneymaking enterprise for the little concern proprietor. particularly if you fall in one of the minority groups supported by the government’s socioeconomic plans. The encouragement of little concern is an of import end of the authorities that is addressed by the Federal Acquisition Regulations. As stated in Feldman ( 2012 ) . although the government’s primary involvement in securing goods and services is to obtain them on a competitory. best value footing. the authorities has besides implemented through the procurement procedure policies to guarantee that assorted basic socioeconomic aims are met. Because of this. plans have been created which provide specific catching and sub-contracting penchants to little concerns. little deprived concerns. woman- and veteran- owned little concerns and little concerns located in historically underutilized concern zones ( HUBZones ) . The most common method by which the authorities gives penchant in its procurances to little concern concerns is by â€Å"setting aside† proposed contracts ; i. e. . reserving. all or portion of a proposed procurance for sole engagement by little concern merely. In order to measure up for these discriminatory plans. your little concern must run into certain demands and standards to be eligible. but we’ll get to those demands in a minute. So. if you’re a little concern proprietor. interested in going involved in authorities catching. and possibly even fall into one of the preferable little concern groups. you owe it to yourself to larn more about how to acquire involved in the authorities acquisition procedure. First. let’s talk more about the preferable catching groups. To get down with. you must be certain you qualify as a little concern so you can take advantage of valuable authorities undertaking chances reserved for little concerns concerns. To be eligible as a little concern concern. your concern must fulfill the Small Business Administration’s ( SBA ) size criterion for your industry. be operated for net income. be independently owned and operated. and be based in the U. S. . doing important parts to the U. S. economic system. The SBA has a comprehensive web site with a tool to assist you do that finding. They besides have local offices that are a wealth of cognition with free aid sing authorities undertaking counsel. recommendations and the bit-by-bit instructions on how to acquire started. Once you’ve determined you meet the size demands to be a little concern. let’s see if your concern falls into any of the preferable contractor standards. If you are a qualified little concern concern who is 51 % or more owned and controlled by socially and economically deprived persons. and are under the control of such persons for its direction and day-to-day concern operations. this is normally known as a little disadvantaged concern ( SDB ) . Some of the advantages available to SDBs are: a monetary value rating accommodation. a engagement rating factor and a pecuniary subcontracting inducement. One of the best advantages available to an SDB contractor is the right to take part in the SBA’s â€Å"8 ( a ) program† . Now. for women-owned little concerns. there is a government-wide end to present at least 5 % of all federal premier contracts and subcontracts each financial twelvemonth to women-owned little concerns. The standards for women-owned little concerns is similar to the SDB in that they must be 51 % or more owned and operated by one or more adult females. or. if the house is publically owned. one or more adult fe males must have 51 % of the firm’s stock. Daily operation and direction of the house must be controlled by one or more of the adult females. Similarly for veterans. the Veterans Entrepreneurship and Small Business Development Act of 1999 has a end to spread out bing veterans aid plans. particularly for those with service-related disablements. who own at least 51 % of and command a little concern concern. Among other things. the Act amends the Small Business Act to set up a government-wide engagement end for little concerns owned and controlled by service-disabled veterans of 3 % of the entire value of premier contract and subcontract awards for each financial twelvemonth. FAR subpart 19. 14 initiated the Veterans Benefit Act of 2003 which created a procurement plan for little concern concerns owned and controlled by service-disabled veterans. There are many extra procurance penchants but the last of the little concern minority groups we will turn to here is the HUBZone little concerns. The HUBZone Empowerment Contracting Program was established by Congress in the Small Business Reauthorization Act of 1997. This plan is intended to supply undertaking aid to measure up little concerns located in â€Å"historically underutilized concern zones† in an attempt to increase employment chances. investing and economic development in those countries. To run into the standards for enfranchisement as a HUBZone little concern you must be located in a HUBZone. be 100 % owned and controlled by U. S. citizens and have at least 35 % of your employees populating within the HUBZone. Consult the SBA web site to see if your concern is already in a HUBZone or if it w ould be worthwhile to travel your concern to a nearby location that does fall in this class. At this point. we have captured the kernel of each of the chief little concern minorities for you to cognize whether you may be able to measure up for one or more of the preferable catching groups. Once your little concern has been qualified and registered as a little concern with the SBA and finding has been made if you fall into one or more of the particular minority groups. you can get down to look at authorities acquisition chances available to your little concern. One of the best topographic points to make this is on the SBA web site or at any of the Federal Business Opportunity websites. They will name the booked catching proposals being solicited for by the authorities and you can see if they are specifically seeking for certain preferable groups to take part. Be certain you have the proficient makings to prosecute the chance. maintaining in head that past public presentation is a asset. The authorities wants to give you the chance to take part in the full and unfastened competition for these contracts with preferable consideration due to your position. Your local SBA office can assist you find which 1s you are best qualified to vie for and will steer you through the pro posal procedure. All of those large concern companies got their start in authorities catching by get downing as a little concern and turning ; one proposal and subsequent contract award at a clip. The U. S. authorities wants to be certain you get the same chance and has paved the manner to promote you to make so. Now. cognizing that you are ready to get down viing for authorities contracts. we need to speak money. Because so many of the current authorities contracts being offered are steadfast fixed-price contracts with a progress payment apparatus. you need to be prepared to acquire through that first twelvemonth ; the one after you are awarded the contract. Even the bigger companies have money issues. so. merely because you are a little concern. you should non see this as a disadvantage. This is yet another country where the SBA can assist you turn up all of the different funding options available for your little concern and truly discourse the pros and cons based on your peculiar state of affairs. One option is contract funding and that occurs when the authorities assists contractors in financing their contracts by doing periodic advancement payments as contract public presentation returns. Advancement payments may be based on either the costs incurred in the public presentation or on a pe r centum or phase of completion. When the authorities offers advancement payments on a contract. this truly helps both big and little concerns to cover the disbursals as you proceed through the period of public presentation. But before the first payment is made and waiting on subsequent payments can be nerve-racking. so it is necessary to hold working capital built up to cover the waiting period. Government payments are much faster than they used to be due to the Prompt Payment Act but you will necessitate to see your bills are submitted quickly and accurately to let them to finish them in clip and acquire payment to you. A 2nd option is loan warrants if you are a contractor who needs to borrow money to execute a contract related to national defence. Lend warrants are made by the Federal Reserve Banks on behalf of designated â€Å"guaranteeing agencies† to enable contractors to obtain funding from private beginnings under contracts for the acquisition of supplies or services for the national defence. As a little concern falling in the preferable catching class. a guaranteed loan could be really good in acquiring started in authorities acquisition as it would give you that working capital you may n on hold acquired yet. particularly if your little concern hasn’t developed a big adequate recognition line to back up an unbarred loan. It is frequently surprising to a new little concern how rapidly the disbursals accumulate from an mean authorities contract. To hold the authorities warrant your loan merely might be the reply needed. And eventually there is private funding. Contractors may finance a authorities contract in much the same manner as they would finance a commercial contract – by obtaining funding through a commercial bank or fiscal establishment. This is the preferable method of funding from the government’s point of view. Because private funding may necessitate a contractor to delegate the returns of the contract to be financed as security for financess advanced. the authorities does enforce limitations on these minutess. If this state of affairs occurs. in exchange for a loan. the contractor must follow with the Assignment of Claims Act and the Anti-Assignment Act and their implementing ordinances. Be certain to look into out these ordinances with the SBA to guarantee you are in conformity. After reexamining the basic funding options. it is easy to see that advancement payments will give you the cleanest head start every bit long as you have adequate on the job capital accrued to acquire you through at least the initial period. This should promote you to look for solicitations that offer this type of funding. Again. the SBA is able to supply you with all of the particulars about what to anticipate. how to register your bills and recommendations on acquiring through until the first advancement payment arrives. By now you can see that being a little concern has great advantages because you are offered a wealth of free support by the SBA. As with any concern operations. sometimes litigation state of affairss arise that require legal aid to decide. Another illustration of the penchants afforded to little concerns is the Equal Access to Justice Act ( EAJA ) . Under the Act. eligible little concern concerns may retrieve lawyer fees and disbursals from the authorities if it prevails in an administrative proceeding or a civil action brought by or against the authorities if the government’s place in the judicial proceeding was non â€Å"substantially justified. † Understanding that little concerns may non be big plenty to hold their ain in-house legal staff. the authorities wanted to guarantee the little concern contractor would experience supported to dispute legal state of affairss when appropriate. This is a good country to go good informed on before you need to bespeak the legal fee and expense recovery aid. One country that will truly assist your company addition acknowledgment in the authorities acquisition sphere is capitalising off your successes in the manner of package development. proficient design. technology. patents. and all other rational belongings. In the yesteryear. there were two schools of idea in this country as to who retained ownership of rational belongings that was produced and/or developed ensuing from work performed under authorities research and development ( R A ; D ) contracts. The authoritiess sees it two ways: those who favor a rubric policy under which the authorities would retain rubric to any patent ensuing from an innovation foremost conceived or reduced to pattern under an R A ; D contract or those who favor a licence policy under which the contractor/inventor retains full rubric to the patent for commercial intents. while conveying a nonexclusive unassignable. royalty-free licence to the authorities to utilize the innovation for authorities intents. Th is has been a huffy country but the government’s current place with respect to research and development contracts is fundamentally to use the licence policy. This is great intelligence for both big and little concern proprietors because one time you have developed and patented your merchandises you can go on to utilize and sell them as your concern deems profitable. every bit long as you continue to allow the authorities use them as needed. It besides allows you. the little concern. to be advanced. originative. use the latest engineering and have assurance that your company will retain ownership of the merchandises you create. This is decidedly a win-win state of affairs for all parties involved ; the authorities and the contractor. In fact. authorities contractors are protected by legislative act from suits by other contractors for patent violation. Therefore. a patent proprietor who claims its patented innovation has been infringed either by the authorities or by person moving for the authorities must register suit against the authorities. So. if your concern specializes in making new merchandises. making so under authorities contracts will non merely heighten your abilities and repute with the authorities bureaus but you can rest assured your rational belongings rights are protected. every bit good as your company. every bit long as you are working in support of the authorities. There are many indicants the U. S. authorities earnestly wants to promote little concern to acquire involved in authorities catching. particularly if you fall in one of the minority groups supported by the government’s socioeconomic plans. It has been proven by many to be a really profitable enterprise. and with the preferable contractor plans. little concern companies have many authorities contract solicitations that are non merely tailored to them but booked entirely for their competition. With the SBA being organized by the federal authorities to supply free comprehensive services to the little concern proprietor. they have many capable affair experts at their disposal to learn them how compose a proposal. subject an accurate bill or discover where to watch for solicitations tailored for their minority group. The SBA even provides services to help the little concern proprietor in finding what funding options are available for them. along with all of the agencies of application and pros / cons for each one. With the EAJA. the little concern proprietor can retrieve their legal services fees and disbursals when they feel the demand to take issue with the authorities – and it’s funded by the authorities under set fortunes. The authorities has demonstrated concern and is protecting the rational belongings rights of contractors. Their determination to travel with the licensing policy is good to all authorities contractors ; little and big. In drumhead. there is every ground for a little concern and/or little concern preferred contractor to take advantage of the many chances the federal authorities is offering as a premier contractor or subcontractor in the authorities acquisition sphere. If you qualify in one of the preferable minority groups. I don’t cognize what you are w aiting for – name the SBA for an assignment today. At least travel and larn about all of the chances you are losing!

Small Business in Government Contracting Essay Sample free essay sample

Government catching can be a really moneymaking enterprise for the little concern proprietor. particularly if you fall in one of the minority groups supported by the government’s socioeconomic plans. The encouragement of little concern is an of import end of the authorities that is addressed by the Federal Acquisition Regulations. As stated in Feldman ( 2012 ) . although the government’s primary involvement in securing goods and services is to obtain them on a competitory. best value footing. the authorities has besides implemented through the procurement procedure policies to guarantee that assorted basic socioeconomic aims are met. Because of this. plans have been created which provide specific catching and sub-contracting penchants to little concerns. little deprived concerns. woman- and veteran- owned little concerns and little concerns located in historically underutilized concern zones ( HUBZones ) . The most common method by which the authorities gives penchant in its procurances to little concern concerns is by â€Å"setting aside† proposed contracts ; i. e. . reserving. all or portion of a proposed procurance for sole engagement by little concern merely. In order to measure up for these discriminatory plans. your little concern must run into certain demands and standards to be eligible. but we’ll get to those demands in a minute. So. if you’re a little concern proprietor. interested in going involved in authorities catching. and possibly even fall into one of the preferable little concern groups. you owe it to yourself to larn more about how to acquire involved in the authorities acquisition procedure. First. let’s talk more about the preferable catching groups. To get down with. you must be certain you qualify as a little concern so you can take advantage of valuable authorities undertaking chances reserved for little concerns concerns. To be eligible as a little concern concern. your concern must fulfill the Small Business Administration’s ( SBA ) size criterion for your industry. be operated for net income. be independently owned and operated. and be based in the U. S. . doing important parts to the U. S. economic system. The SBA has a comprehensive web site with a tool to assist you do that finding. They besides have local offices that are a wealth of cognition with free aid sing authorities undertaking counsel. recommendations and the bit-by-bit instructions on how to acquire started. Once you’ve determined you meet the size demands to be a little concern. let’s see if your concern falls into any of the preferable contractor standards. If you are a qualified little concern concern who is 51 % or more owned and controlled by socially and economically deprived persons. and are under the control of such persons for its direction and day-to-day concern operations. this is normally known as a little disadvantaged concern ( SDB ) . Some of the advantages available to SDBs are: a monetary value rating accommodation. a engagement rating factor and a pecuniary subcontracting inducement. One of the best advantages available to an SDB contractor is the right to take part in the SBA’s â€Å"8 ( a ) program† . Now. for women-owned little concerns. there is a government-wide end to present at least 5 % of all federal premier contracts and subcontracts each financial twelvemonth to women-owned little concerns. The standards for women-owned little concerns is similar to the SDB in that they must be 51 % or more owned and operated by one or more adult females. or. if the house is publically owned. one or more adult fe males must have 51 % of the firm’s stock. Daily operation and direction of the house must be controlled by one or more of the adult females. Similarly for veterans. the Veterans Entrepreneurship and Small Business Development Act of 1999 has a end to spread out bing veterans aid plans. particularly for those with service-related disablements. who own at least 51 % of and command a little concern concern. Among other things. the Act amends the Small Business Act to set up a government-wide engagement end for little concerns owned and controlled by service-disabled veterans of 3 % of the entire value of premier contract and subcontract awards for each financial twelvemonth. FAR subpart 19. 14 initiated the Veterans Benefit Act of 2003 which created a procurement plan for little concern concerns owned and controlled by service-disabled veterans. There are many extra procurance penchants but the last of the little concern minority groups we will turn to here is the HUBZone little concerns. The HUBZone Empowerment Contracting Program was established by Congress in the Small Business Reauthorization Act of 1997. This plan is intended to supply undertaking aid to measure up little concerns located in â€Å"historically underutilized concern zones† in an attempt to increase employment chances. investing and economic development in those countries. To run into the standards for enfranchisement as a HUBZone little concern you must be located in a HUBZone. be 100 % owned and controlled by U. S. citizens and have at least 35 % of your employees populating within the HUBZone. Consult the SBA web site to see if your concern is already in a HUBZone or if it w ould be worthwhile to travel your concern to a nearby location that does fall in this class. At this point. we have captured the kernel of each of the chief little concern minorities for you to cognize whether you may be able to measure up for one or more of the preferable catching groups. Once your little concern has been qualified and registered as a little concern with the SBA and finding has been made if you fall into one or more of the particular minority groups. you can get down to look at authorities acquisition chances available to your little concern. One of the best topographic points to make this is on the SBA web site or at any of the Federal Business Opportunity websites. They will name the booked catching proposals being solicited for by the authorities and you can see if they are specifically seeking for certain preferable groups to take part. Be certain you have the proficient makings to prosecute the chance. maintaining in head that past public presentation is a asset. The authorities wants to give you the chance to take part in the full and unfastened competition for these contracts with preferable consideration due to your position. Your local SBA office can assist you find which 1s you are best qualified to vie for and will steer you through the pro posal procedure. All of those large concern companies got their start in authorities catching by get downing as a little concern and turning ; one proposal and subsequent contract award at a clip. The U. S. authorities wants to be certain you get the same chance and has paved the manner to promote you to make so. Now. cognizing that you are ready to get down viing for authorities contracts. we need to speak money. Because so many of the current authorities contracts being offered are steadfast fixed-price contracts with a progress payment apparatus. you need to be prepared to acquire through that first twelvemonth ; the one after you are awarded the contract. Even the bigger companies have money issues. so. merely because you are a little concern. you should non see this as a disadvantage. This is yet another country where the SBA can assist you turn up all of the different funding options available for your little concern and truly discourse the pros and cons based on your peculiar state of affairs. One option is contract funding and that occurs when the authorities assists contractors in financing their contracts by doing periodic advancement payments as contract public presentation returns. Advancement payments may be based on either the costs incurred in the public presentation or on a pe r centum or phase of completion. When the authorities offers advancement payments on a contract. this truly helps both big and little concerns to cover the disbursals as you proceed through the period of public presentation. But before the first payment is made and waiting on subsequent payments can be nerve-racking. so it is necessary to hold working capital built up to cover the waiting period. Government payments are much faster than they used to be due to the Prompt Payment Act but you will necessitate to see your bills are submitted quickly and accurately to let them to finish them in clip and acquire payment to you. A 2nd option is loan warrants if you are a contractor who needs to borrow money to execute a contract related to national defence. Lend warrants are made by the Federal Reserve Banks on behalf of designated â€Å"guaranteeing agencies† to enable contractors to obtain funding from private beginnings under contracts for the acquisition of supplies or services for the national defence. As a little concern falling in the preferable catching class. a guaranteed loan could be really good in acquiring started in authorities acquisition as it would give you that working capital you may n on hold acquired yet. particularly if your little concern hasn’t developed a big adequate recognition line to back up an unbarred loan. It is frequently surprising to a new little concern how rapidly the disbursals accumulate from an mean authorities contract. To hold the authorities warrant your loan merely might be the reply needed. And eventually there is private funding. Contractors may finance a authorities contract in much the same manner as they would finance a commercial contract – by obtaining funding through a commercial bank or fiscal establishment. This is the preferable method of funding from the government’s point of view. Because private funding may necessitate a contractor to delegate the returns of the contract to be financed as security for financess advanced. the authorities does enforce limitations on these minutess. If this state of affairs occurs. in exchange for a loan. the contractor must follow with the Assignment of Claims Act and the Anti-Assignment Act and their implementing ordinances. Be certain to look into out these ordinances with the SBA to guarantee you are in conformity. After reexamining the basic funding options. it is easy to see that advancement payments will give you the cleanest head start every bit long as you have adequate on the job capital accrued to acquire you through at least the initial period. This should promote you to look for solicitations that offer this type of funding. Again. the SBA is able to supply you with all of the particulars about what to anticipate. how to register your bills and recommendations on acquiring through until the first advancement payment arrives. By now you can see that being a little concern has great advantages because you are offered a wealth of free support by the SBA. As with any concern operations. sometimes litigation state of affairss arise that require legal aid to decide. Another illustration of the penchants afforded to little concerns is the Equal Access to Justice Act ( EAJA ) . Under the Act. eligible little concern concerns may retrieve lawyer fees and disbursals from the authorities if it prevails in an administrative proceeding or a civil action brought by or against the authorities if the government’s place in the judicial proceeding was non â€Å"substantially justified. † Understanding that little concerns may non be big plenty to hold their ain in-house legal staff. the authorities wanted to guarantee the little concern contractor would experience supported to dispute legal state of affairss when appropriate. This is a good country to go good informed on before you need to bespeak the legal fee and expense recovery aid. One country that will truly assist your company addition acknowledgment in the authorities acquisition sphere is capitalising off your successes in the manner of package development. proficient design. technology. patents. and all other rational belongings. In the yesteryear. there were two schools of idea in this country as to who retained ownership of rational belongings that was produced and/or developed ensuing from work performed under authorities research and development ( R A ; D ) contracts. The authoritiess sees it two ways: those who favor a rubric policy under which the authorities would retain rubric to any patent ensuing from an innovation foremost conceived or reduced to pattern under an R A ; D contract or those who favor a licence policy under which the contractor/inventor retains full rubric to the patent for commercial intents. while conveying a nonexclusive unassignable. royalty-free licence to the authorities to utilize the innovation for authorities intents. Th is has been a huffy country but the government’s current place with respect to research and development contracts is fundamentally to use the licence policy. This is great intelligence for both big and little concern proprietors because one time you have developed and patented your merchandises you can go on to utilize and sell them as your concern deems profitable. every bit long as you continue to allow the authorities use them as needed. It besides allows you. the little concern. to be advanced. originative. use the latest engineering and have assurance that your company will retain ownership of the merchandises you create. This is decidedly a win-win state of affairs for all parties involved ; the authorities and the contractor. In fact. authorities contractors are protected by legislative act from suits by other contractors for patent violation. Therefore. a patent proprietor who claims its patented innovation has been infringed either by the authorities or by person moving for the authorities must register suit against the authorities. So. if your concern specializes in making new merchandises. making so under authorities contracts will non merely heighten your abilities and repute with the authorities bureaus but you can rest assured your rational belongings rights are protected. every bit good as your company. every bit long as you are working in support of the authorities. There are many indicants the U. S. authorities earnestly wants to promote little concern to acquire involved in authorities catching. particularly if you fall in one of the minority groups supported by the government’s socioeconomic plans. It has been proven by many to be a really profitable enterprise. and with the preferable contractor plans. little concern companies have many authorities contract solicitations that are non merely tailored to them but booked entirely for their competition. With the SBA being organized by the federal authorities to supply free comprehensive services to the little concern proprietor. they have many capable affair experts at their disposal to learn them how compose a proposal. subject an accurate bill or discover where to watch for solicitations tailored for their minority group. The SBA even provides services to help the little concern proprietor in finding what funding options are available for them. along with all of the agencies of application and pros / cons for each one. With the EAJA. the little concern proprietor can retrieve their legal services fees and disbursals when they feel the demand to take issue with the authorities – and it’s funded by the authorities under set fortunes. The authorities has demonstrated concern and is protecting the rational belongings rights of contractors. Their determination to travel with the licensing policy is good to all authorities contractors ; little and big. In drumhead. there is every ground for a little concern and/or little concern preferred contractor to take advantage of the many chances the federal authorities is offering as a premier contractor or subcontractor in the authorities acquisition sphere. If you qualify in one of the preferable minority groups. I don’t cognize what you are w aiting for – name the SBA for an assignment today. At least travel and larn about all of the chances you are losing!

Small Business in Government Contracting Essay Sample free essay sample

Government catching can be a really moneymaking enterprise for the little concern proprietor. particularly if you fall in one of the minority groups supported by the government’s socioeconomic plans. The encouragement of little concern is an of import end of the authorities that is addressed by the Federal Acquisition Regulations. As stated in Feldman ( 2012 ) . although the government’s primary involvement in securing goods and services is to obtain them on a competitory. best value footing. the authorities has besides implemented through the procurement procedure policies to guarantee that assorted basic socioeconomic aims are met. Because of this. plans have been created which provide specific catching and sub-contracting penchants to little concerns. little deprived concerns. woman- and veteran- owned little concerns and little concerns located in historically underutilized concern zones ( HUBZones ) . The most common method by which the authorities gives penchant in its procurances to little concern concerns is by â€Å"setting aside† proposed contracts ; i. e. . reserving. all or portion of a proposed procurance for sole engagement by little concern merely. In order to measure up for these discriminatory plans. your little concern must run into certain demands and standards to be eligible. but we’ll get to those demands in a minute. So. if you’re a little concern proprietor. interested in going involved in authorities catching. and possibly even fall into one of the preferable little concern groups. you owe it to yourself to larn more about how to acquire involved in the authorities acquisition procedure. First. let’s talk more about the preferable catching groups. To get down with. you must be certain you qualify as a little concern so you can take advantage of valuable authorities undertaking chances reserved for little concerns concerns. To be eligible as a little concern concern. your concern must fulfill the Small Business Administration’s ( SBA ) size criterion for your industry. be operated for net income. be independently owned and operated. and be based in the U. S. . doing important parts to the U. S. economic system. The SBA has a comprehensive web site with a tool to assist you do that finding. They besides have local offices that are a wealth of cognition with free aid sing authorities undertaking counsel. recommendations and the bit-by-bit instructions on how to acquire started. Once you’ve determined you meet the size demands to be a little concern. let’s see if your concern falls into any of the preferable contractor standards. If you are a qualified little concern concern who is 51 % or more owned and controlled by socially and economically deprived persons. and are under the control of such persons for its direction and day-to-day concern operations. this is normally known as a little disadvantaged concern ( SDB ) . Some of the advantages available to SDBs are: a monetary value rating accommodation. a engagement rating factor and a pecuniary subcontracting inducement. One of the best advantages available to an SDB contractor is the right to take part in the SBA’s â€Å"8 ( a ) program† . Now. for women-owned little concerns. there is a government-wide end to present at least 5 % of all federal premier contracts and subcontracts each financial twelvemonth to women-owned little concerns. The standards for women-owned little concerns is similar to the SDB in that they must be 51 % or more owned and operated by one or more adult females. or. if the house is publically owned. one or more adult fe males must have 51 % of the firm’s stock. Daily operation and direction of the house must be controlled by one or more of the adult females. Similarly for veterans. the Veterans Entrepreneurship and Small Business Development Act of 1999 has a end to spread out bing veterans aid plans. particularly for those with service-related disablements. who own at least 51 % of and command a little concern concern. Among other things. the Act amends the Small Business Act to set up a government-wide engagement end for little concerns owned and controlled by service-disabled veterans of 3 % of the entire value of premier contract and subcontract awards for each financial twelvemonth. FAR subpart 19. 14 initiated the Veterans Benefit Act of 2003 which created a procurement plan for little concern concerns owned and controlled by service-disabled veterans. There are many extra procurance penchants but the last of the little concern minority groups we will turn to here is the HUBZone little concerns. The HUBZone Empowerment Contracting Program was established by Congress in the Small Business Reauthorization Act of 1997. This plan is intended to supply undertaking aid to measure up little concerns located in â€Å"historically underutilized concern zones† in an attempt to increase employment chances. investing and economic development in those countries. To run into the standards for enfranchisement as a HUBZone little concern you must be located in a HUBZone. be 100 % owned and controlled by U. S. citizens and have at least 35 % of your employees populating within the HUBZone. Consult the SBA web site to see if your concern is already in a HUBZone or if it w ould be worthwhile to travel your concern to a nearby location that does fall in this class. At this point. we have captured the kernel of each of the chief little concern minorities for you to cognize whether you may be able to measure up for one or more of the preferable catching groups. Once your little concern has been qualified and registered as a little concern with the SBA and finding has been made if you fall into one or more of the particular minority groups. you can get down to look at authorities acquisition chances available to your little concern. One of the best topographic points to make this is on the SBA web site or at any of the Federal Business Opportunity websites. They will name the booked catching proposals being solicited for by the authorities and you can see if they are specifically seeking for certain preferable groups to take part. Be certain you have the proficient makings to prosecute the chance. maintaining in head that past public presentation is a asset. The authorities wants to give you the chance to take part in the full and unfastened competition for these contracts with preferable consideration due to your position. Your local SBA office can assist you find which 1s you are best qualified to vie for and will steer you through the pro posal procedure. All of those large concern companies got their start in authorities catching by get downing as a little concern and turning ; one proposal and subsequent contract award at a clip. The U. S. authorities wants to be certain you get the same chance and has paved the manner to promote you to make so. Now. cognizing that you are ready to get down viing for authorities contracts. we need to speak money. Because so many of the current authorities contracts being offered are steadfast fixed-price contracts with a progress payment apparatus. you need to be prepared to acquire through that first twelvemonth ; the one after you are awarded the contract. Even the bigger companies have money issues. so. merely because you are a little concern. you should non see this as a disadvantage. This is yet another country where the SBA can assist you turn up all of the different funding options available for your little concern and truly discourse the pros and cons based on your peculiar state of affairs. One option is contract funding and that occurs when the authorities assists contractors in financing their contracts by doing periodic advancement payments as contract public presentation returns. Advancement payments may be based on either the costs incurred in the public presentation or on a pe r centum or phase of completion. When the authorities offers advancement payments on a contract. this truly helps both big and little concerns to cover the disbursals as you proceed through the period of public presentation. But before the first payment is made and waiting on subsequent payments can be nerve-racking. so it is necessary to hold working capital built up to cover the waiting period. Government payments are much faster than they used to be due to the Prompt Payment Act but you will necessitate to see your bills are submitted quickly and accurately to let them to finish them in clip and acquire payment to you. A 2nd option is loan warrants if you are a contractor who needs to borrow money to execute a contract related to national defence. Lend warrants are made by the Federal Reserve Banks on behalf of designated â€Å"guaranteeing agencies† to enable contractors to obtain funding from private beginnings under contracts for the acquisition of supplies or services for the national defence. As a little concern falling in the preferable catching class. a guaranteed loan could be really good in acquiring started in authorities acquisition as it would give you that working capital you may n on hold acquired yet. particularly if your little concern hasn’t developed a big adequate recognition line to back up an unbarred loan. It is frequently surprising to a new little concern how rapidly the disbursals accumulate from an mean authorities contract. To hold the authorities warrant your loan merely might be the reply needed. And eventually there is private funding. Contractors may finance a authorities contract in much the same manner as they would finance a commercial contract – by obtaining funding through a commercial bank or fiscal establishment. This is the preferable method of funding from the government’s point of view. Because private funding may necessitate a contractor to delegate the returns of the contract to be financed as security for financess advanced. the authorities does enforce limitations on these minutess. If this state of affairs occurs. in exchange for a loan. the contractor must follow with the Assignment of Claims Act and the Anti-Assignment Act and their implementing ordinances. Be certain to look into out these ordinances with the SBA to guarantee you are in conformity. After reexamining the basic funding options. it is easy to see that advancement payments will give you the cleanest head start every bit long as you have adequate on the job capital accrued to acquire you through at least the initial period. This should promote you to look for solicitations that offer this type of funding. Again. the SBA is able to supply you with all of the particulars about what to anticipate. how to register your bills and recommendations on acquiring through until the first advancement payment arrives. By now you can see that being a little concern has great advantages because you are offered a wealth of free support by the SBA. As with any concern operations. sometimes litigation state of affairss arise that require legal aid to decide. Another illustration of the penchants afforded to little concerns is the Equal Access to Justice Act ( EAJA ) . Under the Act. eligible little concern concerns may retrieve lawyer fees and disbursals from the authorities if it prevails in an administrative proceeding or a civil action brought by or against the authorities if the government’s place in the judicial proceeding was non â€Å"substantially justified. † Understanding that little concerns may non be big plenty to hold their ain in-house legal staff. the authorities wanted to guarantee the little concern contractor would experience supported to dispute legal state of affairss when appropriate. This is a good country to go good informed on before you need to bespeak the legal fee and expense recovery aid. One country that will truly assist your company addition acknowledgment in the authorities acquisition sphere is capitalising off your successes in the manner of package development. proficient design. technology. patents. and all other rational belongings. In the yesteryear. there were two schools of idea in this country as to who retained ownership of rational belongings that was produced and/or developed ensuing from work performed under authorities research and development ( R A ; D ) contracts. The authoritiess sees it two ways: those who favor a rubric policy under which the authorities would retain rubric to any patent ensuing from an innovation foremost conceived or reduced to pattern under an R A ; D contract or those who favor a licence policy under which the contractor/inventor retains full rubric to the patent for commercial intents. while conveying a nonexclusive unassignable. royalty-free licence to the authorities to utilize the innovation for authorities intents. Th is has been a huffy country but the government’s current place with respect to research and development contracts is fundamentally to use the licence policy. This is great intelligence for both big and little concern proprietors because one time you have developed and patented your merchandises you can go on to utilize and sell them as your concern deems profitable. every bit long as you continue to allow the authorities use them as needed. It besides allows you. the little concern. to be advanced. originative. use the latest engineering and have assurance that your company will retain ownership of the merchandises you create. This is decidedly a win-win state of affairs for all parties involved ; the authorities and the contractor. In fact. authorities contractors are protected by legislative act from suits by other contractors for patent violation. Therefore. a patent proprietor who claims its patented innovation has been infringed either by the authorities or by person moving for the authorities must register suit against the authorities. So. if your concern specializes in making new merchandises. making so under authorities contracts will non merely heighten your abilities and repute with the authorities bureaus but you can rest assured your rational belongings rights are protected. every bit good as your company. every bit long as you are working in support of the authorities. There are many indicants the U. S. authorities earnestly wants to promote little concern to acquire involved in authorities catching. particularly if you fall in one of the minority groups supported by the government’s socioeconomic plans. It has been proven by many to be a really profitable enterprise. and with the preferable contractor plans. little concern companies have many authorities contract solicitations that are non merely tailored to them but booked entirely for their competition. With the SBA being organized by the federal authorities to supply free comprehensive services to the little concern proprietor. they have many capable affair experts at their disposal to learn them how compose a proposal. subject an accurate bill or discover where to watch for solicitations tailored for their minority group. The SBA even provides services to help the little concern proprietor in finding what funding options are available for them. along with all of the agencies of application and pros / cons for each one. With the EAJA. the little concern proprietor can retrieve their legal services fees and disbursals when they feel the demand to take issue with the authorities – and it’s funded by the authorities under set fortunes. The authorities has demonstrated concern and is protecting the rational belongings rights of contractors. Their determination to travel with the licensing policy is good to all authorities contractors ; little and big. In drumhead. there is every ground for a little concern and/or little concern preferred contractor to take advantage of the many chances the federal authorities is offering as a premier contractor or subcontractor in the authorities acquisition sphere. If you qualify in one of the preferable minority groups. I don’t cognize what you are w aiting for – name the SBA for an assignment today. At least travel and larn about all of the chances you are losing!

Sunday, April 19, 2020

The European Economic Community And The Euro Dollar Essays

The European Economic Community And The Euro Dollar EEC and the Euro Dollar The European Economic Community (EEC), also known as the common market, was established in 1957 through the treaty of Rome signed between Belgium, France, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, and Germany in order to achieve economic cooperation. It has since worked for the free movement of labor and capital, the abolition of trusts and cartels, and the development of joint and reciprocal policies on labor, social welfare, agriculture, transport, and foreign trade. Over the years, monetary union has been suggested by the members of the EEC and was finally attained on January 1,1999 when eleven European countries, which are now collectively referred to as Euroland, introduced a single currency, the euro. Since then, the euro has invaded nearly every sector of the world economy. The monetary revolution embodied in the euro involves far more then the elimination of 11 currencies and the distributions of colorful new banknotes and coins across Europe. It entails the solidification of the E uropean Unions common market for goods and services, major structural changes in countries plagued by fiscal imprudence, and the reorganization of monetary policy in some of the worlds most advanced industrialized economies The risks of implementing the euro consist of supply shocks and political discord. Although the ongoing risks of maintaining Economic monetary union may hinder the stability of the euro in the long run, the integration of the euro to the EEC as of January 1999, has so far proven to have a positive affect on the European economy and has allowed it to achieve its primary political and economic goals through its four core benefits: the reduction of transaction costs, the elimination of exchange rate risks, increased price transparency, and the creation of deep financial markets. The Euro is the newly created currency of the European Economic Community, a currency that became legal tender on January 1, 1999. By 2002, euro notes and coins will replace the Austrian schilling, Belgian franc, Finnish markka, French franc, German mark, Irish punt, Italian lira, Luxembourg franc, Dutch guilder, Portuguese escudo, and Spanish peseta. These 11 nations will share a common currency, a single monetary policy, and a single foreign exchange rate policy. Currencies not only serve as a standardized value of measurement, so that we have a consistent way of expressing value, but they also function as an efficient means of payment. Also they serve as a store of value, allowing us to transport wealth easily over a distance and to store it for indefinite periods of time. There are two main reasons for this monetary union within the EEC (European Economic Community), one being a political reason and the other an economic reason. The political arguments are that a single currency will further unite the European alliance, which was formed after WWII, by forcing Europe to act as a whole rather than as single states. This could perhaps eliminate nationalism and bring unity to this continent, which has been plagued by war twice in the last century. The Economic reasons for the euro project can be found in the relatively poor performance of the European economies over the last twenty years or more. Europe has, for a long time, suffered form relatively weak economic growth. Economic growth that trailed behind that in North America and Asia: productivity gains were weak; unemployment remained persistently high; and many European countries suffered form persistently high wage and price inflation. This was generally thought to be caused by relatively rigid and inflexible labor markets; a high level of government involvement in the economy; a less enterprising culture compared, in particular, to that in North America; and a poorer track record of innovation and research and development. The euro has given Europe one of the largest and most powerful trading blocs in the world. Although the euro doesnt alter the fact that Euroland is composed of diverse and highly independent countries, it strengthens the economic and political ties of the region and its part in the world economy. Because of the success of the euro will ultimately be determined by the collaboration of EEC governments through the formulation of exchange rate policy to the harmonization of legal systems and security